Carbon dating shroud
The dye appeared to have been used to match new yarn to older age-yellowed yarn.In addition to the madder dye, Rogers found a gum substance that was possibly gum Arabic, and a common mordant, alum.Having been prompted to re-examine the region of the carbon dating sampling, in order to disprove the Benford and Marino's suggestion that the carbon dating had been affected by an "invisible reweaving, Ray Rogers began a new, close examination of actual material from the shroud.In collaboration with Anna Arnoldi of the University of Milan, Rogers wrote a paper arguing that the repair was a very real possibility.The most plausible explanation for this difference was that material in this area contained threads that had been bleached more efficiently.It was already known from the shroud’s faint variegated appearance that the shroud’s thread was probably bleached before weaving, probably with potash.
Vanillin is produced by the thermal decomposition of lignin, a chemical compound found in plant material such as flax.
Rogers also discovered that fibers in the Raes area (the corner from which the carbon dating material had been taken) contained significantly less lignin than the rest of the shroud.
Lignin is a chemical compound found in plant material including flax, the plant from which linen fibers are sourced.
The author dismisses 1988 carbon-14 dating tests which concluded that the linen sheet was a medieval fake.
The shroud, which bears the faint image of a blood-covered man, is believed by some to be Christ's burial cloth.
It is said to have been restored by nuns who patched the holes and stitched the shroud to a reinforcing material known as the Holland cloth.